"Abd Allåh b. Yazd al-Fazår"
Willy Ferdinand Wilferd Madelung
Institute of Advanced Studies, Hebrew University, Jerusalem

‘Abd Allåh b. Yazd al-Fazår is known as the most prominent Ibå∂¥ kalåm theologian in the 2nd/8th century. The influence of his theological thought has remained strong among Ibå∂¥s in the Maghrib until modern times. Recently two manuscripts containing several texts either composed by him or quoting responses to questions posed to him have come to light in Algeria. One of the texts is a fragment of a Kitåb al-Futyå in which he is questioned about the legal status of the territory of Islam and of its residents. Al-Fazår¥ describes the territory of Islam as an abode of monotheism as well as hypocrisy where precautionary dissimulation may legitimately be practiced by Muslims. In defining true Islam, he goes beyond earlier Ibå∂¥ doctrine by stipulating sound belief in addition to action in accordance with Qur’anic law.